Emissions from agriculture and their control potentials

Amann M, Klimont Z, & Winiwarter W (2012). Emissions from agriculture and their control potentials. [[TSAP Report #3]], Version 1.0, DG-Environment of the European Commission, Belgium (June 2012)

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Abstract

This report reviews recent developments that are potentially relevant for the control of agricultural emissions in Europe.

As a consequence of a several decades long history of ammonia emission controls in agriculture, principles of current methods and techniques have a sound scientific basis that is well proven in practice. No fundamentally new insights and fundamentally new techniques have emerged over the last decade.

However, in the last 10 years, the known techniques have been applied at a much larger scale in an increasing number of countries, the practical functioning of these techniques has improved, and costs have declined through learning effects. In several countries specialized contractors have taken over some of the activities (e.g., low-emission manure application), which has substantially reduced costs.

For the major sources of agricultural ammonia emissions (i.e., animal manure and urea fertilizer application), a range of emission control options is now proven in practice in more and more countries. Many of these measures are cost-effective, especially when additional synergistic effects are considered.

Modified animal feeding, covered slurry storages, low-emission manure and urea fertilizer application techniques are now cost-effective means in many situations. In particular, modified animal feeding can decrease NH3 emissions from all stages of the animal manure management chain, and, at the same time, decrease N2O emissions and odour.

Emission reduction efficiencies and costs of these measures are sensitive against chosen reference system and depend on local factors, such as weather and soil conditions, differences in management practices and in the technical performances of abatement measures. Yet, in many countries, there is only limited experience with low-emissions techniques, due to technical, economical and cultural barriers that prohibit their implementation. Information and experience gained in other countries is often not readily accepted by farmers. However, in several cases technological and institutional experience has been successfully transferred between countries, resulting in lower costs than originally anticipated.

While cost estimates of low-emission techniques remain uncertain for specific farms due to the inherent variability of important factors across farms, costs tend to be higher on small farms in countries with little experience, and lower on large farms in countries with lots of experience.

The report suggests concrete steps to incorporate these new developments into the GAINS integrated assessment model through modified definitions of mitigation options, adjusted data on emission removal efficiencies and applicabilities, and emission control costs.

Item Type: Other
Research Programs: Mitigation of Air Pollution (MAG)
Air Quality & Greenhouse Gases (AIR)
Bibliographic Reference: [[TSAP Report #3]], Version 1.0, DG-Environment of the European Commission, Belgium (June 2012)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 08:47
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2016 10:18
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/10162

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