The Management of Research and Development (Selected papers from a conference in Wroclaw, Poland, September 1978)

Pelc K, Wasniowski R, & Tomlinson R (1980). The Management of Research and Development (Selected papers from a conference in Wroclaw, Poland, September 1978). IIASA Collaborative Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: CP-80-018


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This paper is one of two IIASA Collaborative Papers containing papers presented at the Third International Conference on the Management of Research, Development and Education held at Wroclaw, Poland in September 1978. The conference was, on this occasion, jointly organized by Dr. Karol Pelc, Director of the Forecasting Research Center of the Technical University of Wroclaw and by Professor Gennady Dobrov, Deputy Director, Institute of Cybernetics, Kiev and at that time a member of the staff of the Management and Technology Area of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Formally, it was jointly sponsored by the Wroclaw Technical University and IIASA.

It is always difficult to decide what to do about conference proceedings. The greatest value of such conferences is usually the meeting between minds -- the exchange of information and understanding between people from different cultures and academic backgrounds. This was particularly true at the Wroclaw conference where there was strong representation from ten countries, both East and West. It was a rare opportunity for scientists to identify potential collaborators and discover who was working in which field. Such opportunities are too few. Nevertheless, the Conference Scientific Committee felt that a number of the papers should be made available for reference in a more accessible form, and with their help, we have made a selection for issue as IIASA Collaborative Papers. A complete list of the 40 papers read at the conference are given as an Appendix to this collection -- copies of individual papers can be obtained by request from the Forecasting Research Center, Technical University of Wroclaw.

The introductory paper to the conference was on "Main Problems in the Control of Scientific and Technological Creative Activities, Application of Innovations and Education of Scientific Staff" and was given by Professor Jan Kaczmarek, Scientific Secretary of the Polish Academy of Sciences and a member of the IIASA Council. We felt that this was of sufficient interest for a separate issue, and appears as IIASA CP-80-19. For the rest we have selected thirteen papers for issue in this volume, and have divided them into three groups.

The first group of five papers is concerned with problems of strategic decision making in the field of science and technology. The first, by Petrasek, provides a new method of classifying the tasks in a forecasting problem which should help in improving the relevance of the results to real-life decisions. Baworowski emphasizes the importance of technology forecasting in developing a producers strategy, and the importance of matching the forecasting procedure to needs at all levels. Two papers, by Schulze and Pelc, are then concerned with the analysis of factors determining national strategy for science and development. Finally, we have a paper by Dierkes and Thienen which discusses the problems of getting a satisfactory debate over science policy issues, and considers the "Science Court" -- proposed originally by Kantrowitz -- as a possible solution.

The next group of papers is concerned with structural changes in science and technology and their impact on the management of interdisciplinary research. The first of these is by Albrecht and Otto who discuss, on the basis of extensive historical studies, the dangers of generalizing over the science-technology-production cycle without making clear differentiation between different classes of technology, as well as other factors. Eto shows some of the problems arising from the development of new sciences -- both basic and mission oriented sciences -- and discusses the implications. Glowiak and Winnicki follow this theme in discussing the managerial action needed to stimulate new fields of technological expertise, such as environmental engineering. Finally, Dobrov, Randolph and Nurminski present some work undertaken at IIASA relating to technological change in agriculture, and in particular draw attention to the problems introduced by the rapidly decreasing output-input energy ratio.

The third group of papers deals with broader questions of management of R&D and of technological change. Bobryshev and Chereshkin discuss, in particular, the development of a planned management information system for research and development in the USSR. Wasniowski considers four questions related to the management of long range programs, namely: What is a long range program? What are the problems of formulation and management? Why is technology assessment needed? Why is systems analysis needed? He discusses the use of computer conferencing and the use of gaming. Ball, Miller and Pearson then give a detailed study of the development of single cell protein, and pay particular attention to the problem of matching technology to market needs. Finally, Jermakowicz and Ruszkiewicz undertake a study of the machinery industry in Poland which enable them to identify some of the major organizational factors influencing the effectiveness of the Science-Technology-Production cycle in industrial enterprises.

All the papers are presented here as given at the conference. In the interests of economy we have not attempted to edit them in any way.

We would like to take this opportunity of thanking the members of the Scientific Committee of the conference for their help with regard to the conduct of the conference and the subsequent selection of papers for publication. It was another example of successful international collaboration.

Item Type: Monograph (IIASA Collaborative Paper)
Research Programs: Management and Technology Area (MMT)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 01:48
Last Modified: 20 Jul 2016 19:48

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