Estimating long-term population exposure to ozone in urban areas of Europe

Syri S, Amann M, Schöpp W, & Heyes C (2001). Estimating long-term population exposure to ozone in urban areas of Europe. Environmental Pollution 113 (1): 59-69. DOI:10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00157-3.

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Abstract

Tropospheric ozone concentrations regarded as harmful for human health are frequently encountered in Central Europe in summertime. Although ozone formation generally results from precursors transported over long distances, in urban areas local effects, such as reactions due to nearby emission sources, play a major role in determining ozone concentrations. Europe-wide mapping and modeling of population exposure to high ozone concentrations is subject to many uncertainties, because small-scale phenomena in urban areas can significantly change ozone levels from those of the surroundings. Currently the integrated assessment modeling of European ozone control strategies is done utilizing the results of large-scale models intended for estimating the rural background ozone levels. This paper presents an initial study on how much local nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations can explain variations between large-scale ozone model results and urban ozone measurements, on one hand, and between urban and nearby rural measurements, on the other. The impact of urban NOx concentrations on ozone levels was derived from chemical equations describing the ozone balance. The study investigated the applicability of the method for improving the accuracy of modeled population exposure, which is needed for efficient control strategy development. The method was tested with NOx and ozone measurements from both urban and rural areas in Switzerland and with the ozone predictions of the large-scale photochemical model currently used in designing Europe-wide control strategies for ground-level ozone. The results suggest that urban NOx levels are a significant explanatory factor in differences between urban and nearby rural ozone concentrations and that the phenomenon could be satisfactorily represented with this kind of method. Further research efforts should comprise testing of the method in more locations and analyzing the performance of more widely applicable ways of deriving the initial parameters.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Tropospheric ozone; Health effects; Nitrogen oxides; Titration; Switzerland
Research Programs: Transboundary Air Pollution (TAP)
Transboundary Air Pollution (TAP)
Bibliographic Reference: Environmental Pollution; 113:59-69 [2001]
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 02:12
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2016 14:32
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/6277

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