Spranger T, Klimont Z, Sponar M, Raes C, Baker SMH, & Sutton MA (2009). Ammonia policy context and future challenges. In: Atmospheric Ammonia. Eds. Reis, M. Sutton, S. & Baker, S.M.H., Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-9121-6_27.Full text not available from this repository.
Ammonia emissions are major contributors to eutrophication and acidification of ecosystems and secondary PM2.5 concentrations in Europe. Reduction of the ammonia emissions in Europe has been on the agenda for more than a decade, first on a national scale, e.g. in Denmark and the Netherlands, followed by international efforts. The latter include the UNECE CLRTAP Gothenburg Protocol and EU directives and strategies.
This Cross Cutting Group considered the policy context of the ammonia problem, including socio-economic, environmental, institutional and technological aspects. Drawing on the scientific findings and recommendations from the other Working Groups and independent contributions from the participants, the Cross Cutting Group addressed the potential role of different policy options to help mitigate ecosystm and health impacts of ammonia emissions. It also discussed a need to adapt tools used in policy analysis (integrated assessment models, IAMs) and consequently evaluate policies in view of new findings. Ammonia policies are becoming strongly interlinked with a number of other environmental and agricultual policies. In order to avoid the problem of pollution swapping, future policies need to consider these interactions. This in turn calls for extensions the tools currently used, verification of specific elements of the models, adaptation of monitoring networks, targeted measurement programs, but also possible revision of legislation in order to close existing loopholes and increase synergies in addressing nitrogen polluton at large. In that sense, priority should be given to measures aiming at reducing all kinds of nitrogen losses at farm level. Ammonia emission reduction policies must be analysed in a multi-effect (human health, acidification and eutrophication of the ecosystems and related biodiversity loss), multi-media (air, water, soil), multi-scale (hot spots, regional, European, global) framework.
|Item Type:||Book Section|
|Research Programs:||Atmospheric Pollution (APD)|
|Bibliographic Reference:||In: M. Sutton, S. Reis and S.M.H. Baker (eds); Atmospheric Ammonia; Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp.433-443 (June 2009)|
|Depositing User:||IIASA Import|
|Date Deposited:||15 Jan 2016 08:42|
|Last Modified:||17 Feb 2016 12:31|
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