Fath B (2018). Ecosystems. In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. pp. 1125-1131 Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.11003-6.

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An ecosystem comprises an ecological community and it energetic and material interactions with the nonliving atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Ecosystems are both conceptual and functional units. The scale of concern is more manageable than that of the global ecosphere, yet higher than just that of the ecological community or population in that it more explicitly considers the physical influences on the biotic community. Research in ecosystem ecology is largely in the areas of energy flow—or trophic-dynamics—and biogeochemical cycling, and ranges from mesocosms to whole system manipulation experiments. Through integrated environmental assessment and adaptive management, the human factor has been brought more directly into ecosystem studies, including focus on urban ecosystems and urban metabolism. The ecosystem approach has been implemented recently for environmental management and conservation in notable national and global treaties.

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biome; Biogeochemical cycling; Ecosystem; Food chain; Food web; Metabolism
Research Programs: Advanced Systems Analysis (ASA)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2018 09:26
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2018 09:26

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