Factors explaining regional variation in under-five mortality in India: An evidence from NFHS-4

Bora, J. (2020). Factors explaining regional variation in under-five mortality in India: An evidence from NFHS-4. Health & Place 64 e102363. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102363.

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Although child mortality has declined in India, pronounced regional and socioeconomic inequality exists. The study examines the effects of individual- and community-level characteristics on under-five mortality and investigates the extent to which they affect regional variation. The study is based on Indian National Family and Health Survey 4, 2015-16 data. A two-level logistic regression model was performed to examine the effects of the socio-economic characteristics, and multivariate decomposition analysis was done to assess the contribution of factors in the inter-regional under-five mortality differentials. Regional variation in the selected variables is observed. For instance, the percentage of children with small childbirth size varied from 9.7% in the southern to 21.6% in the northeastern region. The percentage of poor households, low educated mothers, and childbirths delivered at home facility were higher in the central and eastern region compared to the southern region. The multilevel analysis shows that the region of residence explained 15.8% variance, and community-level characteristics alone could explain 25.3% variation in the risk of under-five deaths. The decomposition analysis indicates that the average number of excess deaths in the central and eastern regions is higher compared to the other regions. The compositional differences account for 50.9% of the under-five mortality gaps between the south and north region, 80.9% of the gap between the south and east, and 42.9% of the gap between the south and central region of India. Special attention and targeted action are needed to address the underlying causes of low birth weight of children in all the regions of India. Region-specific interventions might be priorities; for example, north, and central regions, need an economic and educational uplift, while infrastructural and economic policies should be prioritized for the northeastern region. Also, region-specific community-level interventions are needed to improve child survival in India.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Regional variation; Under-five mortality; Contextual factors; Community education; NFHS4; India
Research Programs: World Population (POP)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2020 07:54
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2021 17:33
URI: https://pure.iiasa.ac.at/16530

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