Synergies between energy arbitrage and fast frequency response for battery energy storage systems

Pusceddu, E., Zakeri, B. ORCID:, & Castagneto Gissey, G. (2021). Synergies between energy arbitrage and fast frequency response for battery energy storage systems. Applied Energy 283 e116274. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116274.

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Energy storage can make key contributions to balancing future low-carbon energy systems by providing a variety of energy system services, with batteries expected to be widely deployed as costs fall with innovation. This paper assesses whether synergies exist between two of the most significant of these services, fast frequency response and energy arbitrage, if a battery energy storage system (BESS) is used to deliver both. A techno-economic model is developed to simulate 600 possible fast frequency response availability windows. Results show that two distinct synergies exist between the two services. The first synergy accounts for the possibility of charging outside the deadband for delivering fast frequency response. We propose an innovative state-of-charge management strategy to exploit this synergy. The second synergy results from energy arbitrage revenues being highly concentrated around peak times, which can enable a battery system to capture most of the arbitrage revenues without an excessive reduction in revenues from capacity provision with enhanced frequency response. The combination of these two synergies means that a battery system could increase its operating profits by 25% by delivering arbitrage and frequency response alternately. This result is shown to be statistically robust using historical data. A battery system able to discharge for 1.5–2 h at its full power rating will most most likely optimise these synergies.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Energy storage system; Battery; Ancillary services; Battery management strategy; Renewable energy; Electricity storage; Smart grid; Energy system model
Research Programs: Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE)
Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE) > Integrated Assessment and Climate Change (IACC)
Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE) > Sustainable Service Systems (S3)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 21 Dec 2020 09:10
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2022 08:37

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