Mid-century net-zero emissions pathways for Japan: Potential roles of global mitigation scenarios in informing national decarbonization strategies

Oshiro, K. & Fujimori, S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7897-1796 (2024). Mid-century net-zero emissions pathways for Japan: Potential roles of global mitigation scenarios in informing national decarbonization strategies. Energy and Climate Change 5 e100128. 10.1016/j.egycc.2024.100128.

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Japan has formulated a net-zero emissions target by 2050. Existing scenarios consistent with this target generally depend on carbon dioxide removal (CDR). In addition to domestic mitigation actions, the import of low-carbon energy carriers such as hydrogen and synfuels and negative emissions credits are alternative options for achieving net-zero emissions in Japan. Although the potential and costs of these actions depend on global energy system transition characteristics which can potentially be informed by the global integrated assessment models, they are not considered in current national scenario assessments. This study explores diverse options for achieving Japan's net-zero emissions target by 2050 using a national energy system model informed by international energy trade and emission credits costs estimated with a global energy system model. We found that demand-side electrification and approximately 100 Mt-CO2 per year of CDR implementation, equivalent to approximately 10% of the current national CO2 emissions, are essential across all net-zero emissions scenarios. Upscaling of domestically generated hydrogen-based alternative fuels and energy demand reduction can avoid further reliance on CDR. While imports of hydrogen-based energy carriers and emission credits are effective options, annual import costs exceed the current cost of fossil fuel imports. In addition, import dependency reaches approximately 50% in the scenario relying on hydrogen imports. This study highlights the importance of considering global trade when developing national net-zero emissions scenarios and describes potential new roles for global models.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Climate change mitigation; Hydrogen; Integrated assessment model; Long-term strategy
Research Programs: Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE)
Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE) > Sustainable Service Systems (S3)
Energy, Climate, and Environment (ECE) > Transformative Institutional and Social Solutions (TISS)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2024 08:25
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2024 08:25
URI: https://pure.iiasa.ac.at/19536

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