Modeling Energy and Agriculture Interactions: An Application to Bangladesh

Parikh, J.K. ORCID: & Kroemer, G. (1984). Modeling Energy and Agriculture Interactions: An Application to Bangladesh. IIASA Working Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: WP-84-010

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A linear programming model is developed to capture energy and agricultural interactions existing in the rural areas of developing countries. Energy used for agriculture includes fertilizers, irrigation and mechanization. Therefore several technological choices of each of the above are considered and so are several crop commodities, several types of livestock and farmers of different income groups. On the demand side, the uses of these for feed, fuel and fertilizer have to be considered which then in addition link up household sector, which is the largest user of non-commercial energy, rural industries sector and agriculture sector. Twelve different energy sources and several conversion technologies such as bio-gas, charcoal kilns, alcohol distilleries etc. are considered.

The model is applicable to low income, biomass scarce developing countries. However, different types of countries would require different approximations and their needs for detailing some aspects or the other may vary. A detailed application is done for Bangladesh for which the situation in 1976-77 is simulated first. This base case itself gives insights into the present behavior of different income groups with regard to choices of fuels and allocation of biomass for various purposes. Since Bangladesh is a very low income country choices of biogas, charcoal kilns and alcohol distilleries have little relevance and also choices of mechanization.

It is shown that due to high needs and prices of fuels, the biomass allocation for fuels takes priority over feed and fertilizers. In fact, the landless burn all and small farmers burn 80% of animal dung rather than use it for fertilizers.

The model also shows that unless carried out by substantial amounts of fertilizers, the small and middle farmers would have fodder and fuel shortages on adopting high yielding varieties (HYV) which minimize straw:grain ratios. Similarly, by 1990, when population increases further, middle farmers also become vulnerable in meeting their feed, fuel, fertilizer requirements. To mitigate these effects, improved stoves and other measures would be necessary to increase biomass use efficiencies considerably.

Item Type: Monograph (IIASA Working Paper)
Research Programs: Food and Agriculture (FAG)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 01:55
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2021 17:12

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