Cost-Effective Water Quality Management Strategies in Central and Eastern Europe

Somlyody, L. & Paulsen, C.M. (1992). Cost-Effective Water Quality Management Strategies in Central and Eastern Europe. IIASA Working Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: WP-92-091

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Many countries in Central and Eastern Europe will be formulating new environmental regulations within the next few years. Among the many topics which these are likely to address is the development of control policies for waste-water dischargers, including municipal sewage treatment plants. In Western Europe and North America, standards have relied heavily upon so-called "best available technology" control policies, which require dischargers to use treatment processes that reduce emissions of BOD, phosphorus, and nitrogen as much as is technically feasible. However, these technologies are often very expensive. Given the state of Central and Eastern European economies, less expensive methods to improve water quality should be seriously considered.

In this paper, we investigate control policies, alternative sewage treatment possibilities, water quality models, and optimization methods required to identify least-cost strategies to improve the region's ambient water quality. We survey the costs and technical capacities of a variety of treatment techniques, ranging from simple primary or mechanical treatment to advanced technology to remove nutrients. We also survey existing water quality models and show how they can be adapted to the policy analysis problem. Finally, we characterize a number of potential policies in terms that are amenable to analysis of their costs and ambient quality impacts. Focussing on municipal waste-water treatment plants and water quality in rivers and streams, we show how these techniques can be integrated and applied. We conclude with an empirical example based on the Nitra, a small, heavily contaminated river in Slovakia.

Item Type: Monograph (IIASA Working Paper)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 02:01
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2021 17:14

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