Emissions from households and other small combustion sources and their reduction potential

Cofala J & Klimont Z (2012). Emissions from households and other small combustion sources and their reduction potential. [[TSAP Report #5]], Version 1.0, DG-Environment of the European Commission, Belgium (June 2012)

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Abstract

To explore the potential contribution of Eco-design product standards to the achievement of the targets of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution, this report develops different scenarios for implementations of more stringent emission limit values to small combustion sources.

In 2005, small sources of solid fuel combustion contributed about one third to total EU-27 emissions of fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC), and less than 10% to total non.methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

For PM2.5, it is estimated that an implementation of Eco-design standards would lead to significant reductions of emissions from small sources compared to the baseline projection. If the discussed Eco-design standards were only introduced for air pollution emissions (without requirements for improved energy efficiencies), PM2.5 from these sources would decline by 38% in 2020 relative to 2005 level (compared to a 21% cut in the current legislation case). By 2030, the Eco-design standards would reduce PM2.5 emission by 70% relative to 2005 (the current legislation only by 40%), and in 2050 these standards would lead to 83% lower emissions, while the baseline results in only 50% relative to 2005. These calculations assume no premature scrapping of existing equipment.

These emission reductions would account for a sizeable fraction of the total PM2.5 emissions from all sectors in the EU-27. In 2020, introduction of the Eco-design standards would cut total PM2.5 by 7%, in 2030 by 16%, and in 2050 by almost 20%.

Black carbon emissions from small combustion sources, which have recently received increasing attention because of their negative health and climate effects, would be reduced by the Eco-design standards by 25% in 2020 and by 75% in 2050.

Although small combustion sources make only limited contributions to NMVOC emissions (8% in 2005), Eco-design standards could reduce these emissions in 2020 by 50% relative to 2005 (compared to a 25% cut envisaged for the baseline), by 80% instead of 50% in 2030, and by more than 90% compared to 60% in 2050.

Even larger emission reductions can be achieved if Eco-design standards would also affect energy efficiency standards, as highlighted by a scenario with ambitious assumptions on energy efficiency improvements for small sources. However, this scenario assumes rapid turnover of existing (inefficient) devices including premature scrapping before the end of its regular lifetime. In reality, such a scenario would be difficult to realize in the short run, since it would require a very fast replacement of the existing capital stock by new equipment and unlimited availability of pellets.

Item Type: Other
Research Programs: Mitigation of Air Pollution (MAG)
Air Quality & Greenhouse Gases (AIR)
Bibliographic Reference: [[TSAP Report #5]], Version 1.0, DG-Environment of the European Commission, Belgium (June 2012)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 08:47
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2016 10:18
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/10160

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