Microbial quality of domestic water: following the contamination chain in a rural township in Kenya

Macharia PW, Yillia P, Muia WA, Byamukama D, & Kreuzinger N (2015). Microbial quality of domestic water: following the contamination chain in a rural township in Kenya. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5 (1): 39-49. DOI:10.2166/washdev.2014.070.

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Abstract

A study was undertaken in Njoro Township, Kenya to evaluate the extent to which drinking water was sujected to post-collection faecal contamination in low-income and high-income households. Boreholes were the main drinking water sources, accounting or roughly 70% singular access. The microbial quality of drinking water from the boreholes deteriorated from the point-of-collection through conveying containers of small-scale water vendors to household storage containers, irrespective of their income status.

The densities of Escherichia coli (EC) were relatively low at the point-of-collection - median (M): 1 CFU/100 mL, range (R): 0-220, n = 60- increasing considerably in the containers of water vendors (M: 290 CFU/100 mL, R: 30-350) and slightly (M: 360 CFU/100 mL, R: 0-520) between vendors and low-income households, many of whom used the services of vendors unlike high-income houseolds who relied on a piped system on premises (M: 40 CFU/100 mL, R: 0-500).

Post-collection contamination was high in low-income households compared to high-income households but differences were not significant between the two household categories with and without household water treatment (HWT). Different HWT methods in the two household categories significantly reduced faecal contamination, but unhygienic handling and poor storage practices afterwards caused recontamination. HWT and behavioural change measures need not selectively target household groups solely on the basis of their income status.

Item Type: Article
Research Programs: Water (WAT)
Bibliographic Reference: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development; 5(1):39-49 (2015)
Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 08:53
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2016 13:26
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/11487

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