A set of existing optimization models, which represent the energy systems of the OECD and LDCs (less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon to 2020, has been applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures is a scheme of taxes levied on the emission of six pollutants, including the greenhouse gases CO2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on taxes discussed by the Swedish government: they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs.
The regional models include the following alternatives:
1.(i) reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation);
2.(ii) substitution of new fuels for polluting fuels;
3.(iii) introduction of clean technologies for the same purposes;
4.(iv) additions of pollution-reduction technologies.
Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared with a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 yr in the base scenario would be changed to stable levels to 2010 by tax-induced measures. Thereafter, energy-consumption growth in the LDCs reverses this trend.
|Research Programs:||Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS)|
|Depositing User:||Romeo Molina|
|Date Deposited:||18 Apr 2016 09:25|
|Last Modified:||20 Apr 2016 07:32|
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