Environmental impacts of first Soviet nuclear complex

Laverov N, Novikov V, & Parker F (1998). Environmental impacts of first Soviet nuclear complex. In: Chemistry, Energy and the Environment. Eds. Sequeira, C.A.C. & Moffat, J.B., pp. 389-396 UK: Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85573-801-0 DOI:10.1016/B978-1-85573-801-0.50040-6.

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Abstract

The first Soviet Nuclear Complex (now the Production Association “Mayak”) was created in the late forties as a key part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program for breeding of weapon grade plutonium and reprocessing of fuel elements. Production during the early years at Mayak lead to heavy radioactive contamination of the nearby territory. In addition to this contamination there are problems associated with the huge amounts of radioactive waste accumulated at the Mayak site. During the Soviet period the Mayak site was restricted area. Outside access was controlled and the facilities were not mentioned in the press or in the literature. Now the legacy of the past fifty years is the focus of both national and international attention. International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA) has conducted the project “Mayak Case Study” aimed at evaluation of radiation hazards to the public and environment and of the technological and management options for dealing with these hazards. The work was done with the support of US Department of Energy, internal IIASA funds and Alton Jones Foundation. The project report describes the radiation legacy of the first Soviet nuclear complex with main emphasis on the radioactive contamination of the Lake Karachay and the Techa River Cascade of Reservoirs. In addition to description of the radiological situation some results of modelling of future threats are presented. Recommendation for future countermeasures both technical and social are presented and discussed.

Item Type: Book Section
Research Programs: Radiation Safety of the Biosphere (RAD)
Depositing User: Romeo Molina
Date Deposited: 28 Apr 2016 06:50
Last Modified: 28 Apr 2016 07:46
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/12922

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