Ammonia deposition near hot spots: Process, models and monitoring methods

Loubet B, Asman WAH, & Theobald MR (2009). Ammonia deposition near hot spots: Process, models and monitoring methods. In: Atmospheric Ammonia. Eds. Reis, M. Sutton, S. & Baker, S.M.H., Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4020-9121-6 DOI:10.1007/978-1-4020-9121-6_15.

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Abstract

Atmospheric reduced nitrogen (NHx) mainly originates from hot spots, which can be considered as intensive area or point sources. A large fraction of the emitted NHx may be recaptured by the surrounding vegetation, hence reducing the contribution of these hot spots to long-range transport of NHx. This paper reviews the processes leading to local recapture of NHx near hot spots, as well as existing models and monitoring methods. The existing models range from research models to more operational models that can be coupled with long-range transport model provided the necessary information on emissions is available. Local recapture of NH3 ranges from 2% to 60% within 2 km of a hot-spot and it is sensitive to source height atmospheric stability, wind speed, structure of the surrounding canopies, as well as stomatal absorpton, which mainly depends on green leaf area index and stomatal NH3 compensation point of vegetation, and finally, cuticular deposition, which depends primarily on vegetation wetness. The main uncertainties and limitations on NHx recapture models and monitoring techniques are discussed.

Due to the decrease of sulphur and nitrogen oxides emissions under a series of UNECE protocols, reduced nitrogen (NHx), has become the dominant pollutant in Western Europe contributing to acidification of ecosystems (e.g. Vestreng and Storen 2000). At the global scale NHx and NOx emissions are comparable, although large uncertainties exist on NHx emissions (Dentener and Crutzen 1994; Bouwman et al. 1997). Moreover, NHx deposition, with other nitrogen (N) deposition, leads to eutrophication and changes in the biodiversity of semi-natural ecosystems (Van Breemen and van Dijk 1988; Roelofs et al. 1985; Fangmeier et al. 1994; Krupa 2003; EEA 2003). Although atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is not a greenhouse gas (GHG), deposition of NHx may lead to increased GHG emissions (N2O) (Melillo et al. 1989) or reduced consumpton of CH4. Additionally, ammonium sulphate aerosols (NH4)2SO4, contribute to half of the negative radiatve forcing of the atmosphere due to aerosols (Houghton et al. 2001; Adams et al. 2001), as well as contriuting to impacts of secondary aerosol on human health.

Item Type: Book Section
Research Programs: Atmospheric Pollution (APD)
Bibliographic Reference: In: M. Sutton, S. Reis and S.M.H. Baker (eds); Atmospheric Ammonia; Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp.205-267 (June 2009)
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Depositing User: IIASA Import
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2016 08:42
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2016 13:28
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/8911

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