On-Road NOx and Smoke Emissions of Diesel Light Commercial Vehicles–Combining Remote Sensing Measurements from across Europe

Chen Y, Sun R, & Borken-Kleefeld J ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5465-8559 (2020). On-Road NOx and Smoke Emissions of Diesel Light Commercial Vehicles–Combining Remote Sensing Measurements from across Europe. Environmental Science & Technology 54 (19): 11744-11752. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.9b07856.

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Abstract

Light commercial vehicles (LCVs) account for about 10-15% of road traffic in Europe. There have only been few investigations on their on-road emission performance. Here, on-road remote sensing vehicle emission measurements from 18 locations across four European countries are combined for a comprehensive analysis of NOx and smoke emission rates from diesel LCV in the past two decades. This allows differentiating the performance by emission standards, model years, curb weights, engine loads, manufacturers, vehicle age, and temperature, as well as by measurement devices. We find a general consistency between devices and countries. On-road NOx emission rates have been much higher than type approval limit values for all manufacturers, but some perform systematically better than others. Emission rates have gone down only with the introduction of Euro 6a-b emission standards since the year 2015. Smoke emission rates are considered a proxy for particulate emissions. Their emissions have decrease substantially from the year 2010 onward for all countries and size classes measured. This is consistent with the substantial tightening of the particulate matter emission limit value that typically forced the introduction of a diesel particulate filter. The average NOx emission rate increases with engine load and decreasing ambient temperatures, particularly for Euro 4 and 5 emission classes. This explains to a large extent the differences in the absolute level between the measurement sites together with differences in fleet composition. These dependencies have already been observed earlier with diesel passenger cars; they are considered part of an abnormal emission control strategy. Some limited increase of the NOx emission rate is observed for Euro 3 vehicles older than 10 years. The strong increase for the youngest Euro 6 LCVs might rather reflect technology advances with successively younger models than genuine deterioration. However, the durability of emission controls for Euro 6 vehicles should be better monitored closely. Smoke emission rates continuously increase with vehicle age, suggesting a deterioration of the after-treatment system with use.

Item Type: Article
Research Programs: Air Quality & Greenhouse Gases (AIR)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2020 07:53
Last Modified: 27 Oct 2020 08:10
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/16805

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