Food and agriculture

de Souza, M., Koo-Oshima, S., Kahil, T. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7812-5271, Wada, Y. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4770-2539, Qadir, M., Jewitt, G., Cudennec, C., Uhlenbrook, S., et al. (2021). Food and agriculture. In: The United Nations World Water Development Report 2021: Valuing Water. pp. 67-78 Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-100434-6

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Abstract

Food security has long been a challenge for human societies and will become an increasingly pressing global issue over the coming decades (Fischer, 2018). Although global food production has kept pace with population growth, close to 750 million people (or 10% of the global population) were exposed to severe levels of food insecurity in 2019 (FAO/IFAD/ UNICEF/WFP/WHO, 2020). Unfortunately, this number has increased even further over the course of 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impacts worldwide. In the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 aims to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture” (UNGA, 2015). The food system is almost entirely supported by water, and agriculture uses the major share of global freshwater resources. However, water use for food production is being questioned continually as intersectoral competition for water intensifies and water scarcity increases. Additionally, in many regions of the world, water for food production is used inefficiently (D’Odorico et al., 2020). This is a major driver of environmental degradation, including depletion of aquifers, reduction of river flows, degradation of wildlife habitats, and pollution (Willett et al., 2019). A fundamental transformation of how water is being managed in the food system is therefore necessary if most of the SDG 2 targets are to be achieved by 2030, without further degradation of water resources to concurrently achieve SDG 6 to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” (IFPRI, 2019).

Item Type: Book Section
Research Programs: Biodiversity and Natural Resources (BNR)
Biodiversity and Natural Resources (BNR) > Water Security (WAT)
Depositing User: Luke Kirwan
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2021 09:02
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2021 17:34
URI: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/17136

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