Items where IIASA Author is "Hofhansl, Florian"

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Number of items: 57.

Article

Martins, N.P., Valverde‐Barrantes, O., Fuchslueger, L., Lugli, L.F., Grandis, A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Takeshi, B., Ushida, G. & Quesada, C.A. (2023). Fine root presence and increased phosphorus availability stimulate wood decay in a central Amazonian rainforest. Oikos 2, e09996. 10.1111/oik.09996.

Singh, S., Verma, A. & Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 (2023). Topographical heterogeneity governs species distribution and regeneration potential by mediating soil attributes in Western Himalayan forests. Research Square 10.21203/rs.3.rs-3462205/v1. (Submitted)

Joshi, J., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Singh, S., Stocker, B., Brännström, Å., Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Blanco, C.C., Aleixo, I., Lapola, D.M., Prentice, I.C. et al. (2023). Competition for light can drive adverse species-composition shifts in the Amazon Forest under elevated CO2. BioRxiv 10.1101/2023.07.03.547575. (Submitted)

Rius, B.F., Filho, J.P.D., Fleischer, K., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Blanco Casagrande, C., Rammig, A., Domingues Ferreira, T. & Lapola Montenegro, D. (2023). Higher functional diversity improves modeling of Amazon forest carbon storage. Ecological Modelling 481, e110323. 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2023.110323.

Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Fransson, P., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Jansen, S. & Joshi, J. (2023). Optimal balancing of xylem efficiency and safety explains plant vulnerability to drought. Ecology Letters 26, 1485-1496. 10.1111/ele.14270.

Schaap, K.J., Fuchslueger, L., Quesada, C.A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Valverde-Barrantes, O., Camargo, P.B. & Hoosbeek, M.R. (2023). Seasonal fluctuations of extracellular enzyme activities are related to the biogeochemical cycling of C, N and P in a tropical terra-firme forest. Biogeochemistry 10.1007/s10533-022-01009-4.

Noll, L., Zhang, S., Zheng, Q., Hu, Y., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 & Wanek, W. (2022). Climate and geology overwrite land use effects on soil organic nitrogen cycling on a continental scale. Biogeosciences 19 (23), 5419-5433. 10.5194/bg-2022-41.

Joshi, J., Stocker, B.D., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Zhou, S., Dieckmann, U ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 & Prentice, I.C. (2022). Towards a unified theory of plant photosynthesis and hydraulics. Nature Plants 10.1038/s41477-022-01244-5.

Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Fransson, P., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 & Joshi, J. (2022). Optimal balancing of xylem efficiency and safety explains plant vulnerability to drought. bioRxiv (preprint) 10.1101/2022.05.16.491812.

Lesiv, M. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9846-3342, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Buchhorn, M., See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Dürauer, M., Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Jung, M., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Schulze, K., Bilous, A. et al. (2022). Global forest management data for 2015 at a 100 m resolution. Scientific Data 9 (1), e199. 10.1038/s41597-022-01332-3.

Fritz, S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0420-8549, Laso Bayas, J.C. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2844-3842, See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Jung, M., Dürauer, M., Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Danylo, O., Lesiv, M. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9846-3342 et al. (2022). A Continental Assessment of the Drivers of Tropical Deforestation with a Focus on Protected Areas. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3, e830248. 10.3389/fcosc.2022.830248.

Schaap, K.J., Fuchslueger, L., Quesada, C.A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Valverde-Barrantes, O., Camargo, P. & Hoosbeek, M.R. (2022). Extracellular enzyme activities in tropical soils are driven by seasonal litter input. Biogeochemistry 163, 1-15. 10.1007/s10533-022-01009-4.

Laso Bayas, J.C. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2844-3842, See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Danylo, O., Dürauer, M., Bartl, H., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Zadorozhniuk, R., Burianchuk, M. et al. (2022). Drivers of tropical forest loss between 2008 and 2019. Scientific Data 9 (1), e146. 10.1038/s41597-022-01227-3.

Schaap, K.J., Fuchslueger, L., Hoosbeek, M.R., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Martins, N.P., Valverde-Barrantes, O.J., Hartley, I.P., Lugli, L.F. & Quesada, C.A. (2021). Litter inputs and phosphatase activity affect the temporal variability of organic phosphorus in a tropical forest soil in the Central Amazon. Plant and Soil 10.1007/s11104-021-05146-x.

Martins, N.P., Fuchslueger, L., Fleischer, K., Andersen, K.M., Assis, R.L., Baccaro, F. B., Camargo, P.B., Cordeiro, A.L., Grandis, A., Hartley, I. P. et al. (2021). Fine roots stimulate nutrient release during early stages of leaf litter decomposition in a Central Amazon rainforest. Plant and Soil 469, 287-303. 10.1007/s11104-021-05148-9.

Janssen, T., van der Velde, Y., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Luyssaert, S., Naudts, K., Driessen, B., Fleischer, K. & Dolman, H. (2021). Drought effects on leaf fall, leaf flushing and stem growth in Neotropical forest; reconciling remote sensing data and field observations. Biogeosciences Discussions 18 (14), 4445-4472. 10.5194/bg-2021-30.

Janssen, T., van der Velde, Y., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Luyssaert, S., Naudts, K., Driessen, B., Fleischer, K. & Dolman, H. (2021). Drought effects on leaf fall, leaf flushing and stem growth in the Amazon forest: reconciling remote sensing data and field observations. Biogeosciences 18 (14), 4445-4472. 10.5194/bg-18-4445-2021.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacón-Madrigal, E., Brännström, Å., Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 & Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140 (2021). Mechanisms driving plant functional trait variation in a tropical forest. Ecology and Evolution 11, 3856- 3870. 10.1002/ece3.7256.

Joshi, J., Stocker, B.D., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Zhou, S., Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 & Prentice, I.C. (2020). Towards a unified theory of plant photosynthesis and hydraulics. BioRxiv 10.1101/2020.12.17.423132.

Van Langenhove, L., Verryckt, L.T., Bréchet, L., Courtois, E.A., Stahl, C., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Bauters, M., Sardans, J., Boeckx, P., Fransen, E. et al. (2020). Atmospheric deposition of elements and its relevance for nutrient budgets of tropical forests. Biogeochemistry 10.1007/s10533-020-00673-8.

Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Harrison, S.P., Dewar, R., Farrior, C.E., Brännström, Å., Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393, Pietsch, S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6431-2212, Falster, S., Cramer, W., Loreau, M. et al. (2020). Organizing principles for vegetation dynamics. Nature Plants 6, 444-453. 10.1038/s41477-020-0655-x.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacón-Madrigal, E., Fuchslueger, L., Jenking, D., Morera-Beita, A., Plutzar, C., Silla, F., Andersen, K.M., Buchs, D., Dullinger, S. et al. (2020). Climatic and edaphic controls over tropical forest diversity and vegetation carbon storage. Scientific Reports 10, e5066. 10.1038/s41598-020-61868-5.

Prommer, J., Walker, T., Wanek, W., Braun, J., Zezula, D., Hu, Y., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 & Richter, A. (2020). Increased microbial growth, biomass and turnover drive soil organic carbon accumulation at higher plant diversity. Global Change Biology 26 (2), 669-681. 10.1111/gcb.14777.

Schepaschenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Chave, J., Phillips, O.L., Lewis, S.L., Davies, S.J., Réjou-Méchain, M., Sist, P., Scipal, K., Perger, C., Herault, B. et al. (2019). The Forest Observation System, building a global reference dataset for remote sensing of forest biomass. Scientific Data 6 (1), e198. 10.1038/s41597-019-0196-1.

Fleischer, K., Rammig, A., De Kauwe, M.G., Walker, A.P., Domingues, T.F., Fuchslueger, L., Garcia, S., Goll, D.S., Grandis, A., Jiang, M. et al. (2019). Amazon forest response to CO2 fertilization dependent on plant phosphorus acquisition. Nature Geoscience 12, 736-741. 10.1038/s41561-019-0404-9.

Fuchslueger, L., Wild, B., Mooshammer, M., Takriti, M., Kienzl, S., Knoltsch, A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Bahn, M. & Richter, A. (2019). Microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling responses to drought and temperature in differently managed mountain grasslands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 135, 144-153. 10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.05.002.

Rabl, D., Gottsberger, B., Brehm, G., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 & Fiedler, K. (2019). Moth assemblages in Costa Rica rain forest mirror small-scale topographic heterogeneity. Biotropica 10.1111/btp.12677.

Morera-Beita, A., Sánchez, D., Wanek, W., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Werner, H., Chacón-Madrigal, E., Montero-Muñoz, J.L. & Silla, F. (2019). Beta diversity and oligarchic dominance in the tropical forests of Southern Costa Rica. Biotropica 51 (2), 117-128. 10.1111/btp.12638.

Pereira, I., do Nascimento, H., Vicari, M., Disney, M., DeLucia, E., Domingues, T., Kruijt, B., Lapola, D., Meir, P., Norby, R. et al. (2019). Performance of Laser-Based Electronic Devices for Structural Analysis of Amazonian Terra-Firme Forests. Remote Sensing 11 (5), e510. 10.3390/rs11050510.

Rammig, A., Heinke, J., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Verbeeck, H., Baker, T.R., Christoffersen, B., Ciais, P., De Deurwaerder, H., Fleischer, K., Galbraith, D. et al. (2018). A generic pixel-to-point comparison for simulated large-scale ecosystem properties and ground-based observations: an example from the Amazon region. Geoscientific Model Development 11 (12), 5203-5215. 10.5194/gmd-11-5203-2018.

Moser, D., Lezner, B., Weigelt, P., Dawson, W., Kreft, H., Pergl, J., Pysek, P., van Kleunen, M., Winter, M., Capinha, C. et al. (2018). Remoteness promotes biological invasions on islands worldwide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (37), 9270- 9275. 10.1073/pnas.1804179115.

Book Section

Chacón-Madrigal, E., Avalos, G., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Coronado, I., Ferrufino-Acosta, L., MacVean, A. & Rodríguez, D. (2022). Biological invasions by plants in continental Central America. In: Global Plant Invasions. Eds. Clements, D., Upadhyaya, M., Joshi, S. & Ahrestha, A., Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-89684-3 10.1007/978-3-030-89684-3.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacon-Madrigal, E., Morera, A., Silla, F., Huber, W., Weissenhofer, A. & Wanek, W. (2019). Diversity and composition of tropical forest plant communities in the Golfo Dulce region. In: Acta ZooBot Austria. pp. 31-46 Vienna, Austria: Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Osterreich. ISBN 978-3-901294-19-8

Monograph

Lutz, W. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7975-8145 & Pachauri, S. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8138-3178 (2023). Systems Analysis for Sustainable Wellbeing. 50 years of IIASA research, 40 years after the Brundtland Commission, contributing to the post-2030 Global Agenda. IIASA Report. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) 10.5281/zenodo.8214208.

Conference or Workshop Item

Stefaniak, E., Tissue, D., Dewar, R., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Joshi, J. & Medlyn, B. (2023). Optimality Theory informed Carbon Storage Allocation under drought. In: 2nd Workshop Carbon Allocation in Plants - Advances in carbon allocation and acquisition, 20-21 NOVEMBER 2023, Versailles, France.

Joshi, J., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Singh, S., Stocker, B., Vignal, T., Brännström, Å., Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Blanco, C., Aleixo, I., Lapola, D. et al. (2023). Predicting the adaptive responses of biodiverse plant communities using functional trait evolution. In: Ecological Society of American 2023 Annual Meeting, 6-11 August 2023, Portland.

Lichstein, J.W., Longo, M., Bereswill, S., Blanco, C.C., Bonal, D., Chave, J., Christoffersen, B.O'D, de Paula, M.D., Derroire, G., Fisher, R.A. et al. (2023). A model intercomparison project to study the role of plant functional diversity in the response of tropical forests to drought. In: Ecological Society of American 2023 Annual Meeting, 6-11 August 2023, Portland.

Joshi, J., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Singh, S., Stocker, B., Brännström, Å., Vignal, T., Casagrande Blanco, C., Aleixo, I., Lapola, D., Prentice, I.C. et al. (2023). Roles of diversity and adaptation in the eco-evolutionary responses of biodiverse plant communities to climate change. In: EGU General Assembly 2023, 23-28 April 2023, Vienna.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Barrantes, O.V., Chacón-Madrigal, E., Hietz, P., Weissenhofer, A., Prommer, J., Wanek, W. & Fuchslueger, L. (2023). Do fine root morphological and functional adaptations support regrowth success in a tropical forest restoration experiment? In: EGU General Assembly 2023, 23-28 April 2023, Vienna.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 (2022). Biodiversity controls ecosystem functioning and associated services in a geomorphologic heterogeneous tropical forest in southwestern Costa Rica. In: 58th annual conference meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC 2022), July 10-14, 2022.

Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140, Fransson, P., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 & Joshi, J. (2022). Plants maximize the conductive efficiency of the xylem. In: EGU General Assembly 2022, 23-27 May 2022, Vienna.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 (2022). Amazon forest responses to projected climate change, elevated CO2 and biodiversity loss. In: Annual Meeting of the British Ecological Society (BES), 18-21 December 2022, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Valverde Barrantes, O.J., Oblitas, E., Lugli, L.F., Fuchslueger, L., Cordeiro, A.L., Schaap, K., Andersen, K.M., Garcia, S., Grandis, A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 et al. (2021). Lagging Response of Belowground Functional Traits to Environmental Cues in a Mature Amazonian Tropical Rainforest. In: AGU Fall Meeting, 13-17 December 2021.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacon-Madrigal, E. & Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140 (2021). Mechanisms driving plant functional trait variation in a tropical forest. In: Ecology Across Borders 2021, 9-15 December 2021.

Joshi, J., Stocker, B., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Zhou, S., Brännström, Å., Prentice, I. & Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 (2021). Predicting eco-evolutionary adaptations of plants to drought and rainfall variability. DOI:10.5194/egusphere-egu21-11142. In: EGU General Assembly 2021, 19-30 April 2021.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Muller-Landau, H. & Levick, S. (2020). Measuring change on the ground. In: CCI Biomass Change Workshop, October 19-November 6 2020.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Huber, W., Weissenhofer, A., Wanek, W. & Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140 (2020). Local-scale and spatially explicit response of tropical forests to climate change. DOI:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-10396. In: European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2020, 4-8 May 2020, Vienna, Austria.

Krasovskii, A. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0940-9366, Hu, X., Yowargana, P., Schepaschenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990 & Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 (2019). Modeling wildfire dynamics using FLAM coupled with deep learning methods. In: AGU Fall Meeting, 9-13 December 2019, San Francisco, USA.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacon-Madrigal, E., Brännström, Å., Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 & Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140 (2019). Partitioning of plant functional trait variation into phenotypic plasticity and neutral components reveals functional differences among neotropical tree species. In: AGU Fall Meeting, 9-13 December 2019, San Francisco, USA.

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Chacón-Madrigal, E., Brännström, Å., Dieckmann, U. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7089-0393 & Franklin, O. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0376-4140 (2019). The role of phenotypic plasticity for plant functional traits in tropical forests. In: European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2019, 7–12 April 2019, Vienna, Austria.

Pereira, I.S., do Nascimento, H.E.M., Vicari, M.B., Disney, M., DeLucia, E.H., Domingues, T., Kruijt, B., Lapola, D., Meir, P., Norby, R.J. et al. (2019). Performance of laser-based electronic devices for structural analysis of Amazonian Terra-Firme forest. In: 56th Annual conference meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, July 30-August 03, 2019.

Data

Martins, N., Valverde-Barrantes, O., Fuchslueger, L., Lugli, L., Grandis, A., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Takeshi, B., Ushida, G. & Quesada, C. (2023). Data from: Fine root presence and increased phosphorus availability stimulate wood decay in a Central Amazonian rainforest. 10.5061/DRYAD.RR4XGXDFJ.

Laso Bayas, J.C. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2844-3842, See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Danylo, O., Dürauer, M., Bartl, H., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Lesiv, M. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9846-3342, Zadorozhniuk, R. et al. (2021). Crowdsourcing deforestation in the tropics during the last decade: Data sets from the “Driver of Tropical Forest Loss” Geo-Wiki campaign. 10.22022/NODES/06-2021.122.

Lesiv, M. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9846-3342, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Buchhorn, M., See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Dürauer, M., Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Jung, M., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Schulze, K., Bilous, A. et al. (2021). Global forest management data at a 100m resolution for the year 2015. 10.5281/zenodo.4541512.

Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Chave, J., Phillips, O.L., Lewis, S.L., Davies, S.J., Réjou-Méchain, M., Sist, P., Scipal, K., Perger, C., Herault, B. et al. (2019). A global reference dataset for remote sensing of forest biomass. The Forest Observation System approach. 10.22022/ESM/03-2019.38.

Other

Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946 (2023). Conservation and reforestation of biodiversity in the biological corridor La Gamba, Costa Rica. IIASA , Laxenburg, Austria.

Lesiv, M. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9846-3342, Shchepashchenko, D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7814-4990, Buchhorn, M., See, L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2665-7065, Dürauer, M., Georgieva, I. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-794X, Jung, M., Hofhansl, F. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0073-0946, Schulze, K., Bilous, A. et al. (2020). Methodology for generating a global forest management layer. Zenodo 10.5281/zenodo.3933966. (Submitted)

This list was generated on Tue Apr 23 18:48:21 2024 UTC.